Is a closed salt lake, considered as the lowest point on Earth surface, its surface and shores are 430.5 meters below sea level according to 2013 records?
The reason for the salinity of the Dead Sea is that it is a closed sea not connected to any other seas, nor any river is flooding in it except the Jordan River, where the Jordan River is surrounded by mountains. The Dead Sea is considered a small sea when compared to other seas. The high rate of water withdrawal, high temperature and evaporation rate lead to increasing salts over time, which in turn gives the water very high density. The main source of salts is metal scouring that reaches it through rivers and streams passing through the nearby mountains.
The Dead Sea is located 84 km east of the Mediterranean Sea. It is about 70 km long, its width ranges from 5 to 15 km and about 650 square kilo meters of area. It’s surrounded by The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in the east, the West Bank of Palestine to the north and occupied Palestine to the west.
What distinguishes the Dead Sea is the salinity of its water, as the salts that are concentrated in its water constitute about 34% of the water that is composed of it.
The nature of its composition in this way makes it unique and to be considered as a destination for tourists and visitors from all over the world throughout the years because it is considered by many as a natural SPA rich and full of salts, vitamins, natural minerals which are beneficial to the skin and body.
During the past four decades, the Dead Sea has shrunk by around 35% due to the desert climate of the region, which has resulted in high evaporation rates, which in turn made minerals much concentrated in this natural sea.
The Dead Sea has suffered recently from the continuous decline in its water, where the rate of decline in water level is 33 cm every year, due to major reasons such as intensive use of water resources, most importantly the Jordan River, and due to pumping The Dead Sea water to the southern basin of the Dead Sea, where the Dead Sea consists of two basins one north and the other south and where the southern basin is less deep than the northern basin, much of it is exposed to drought.
The Dead Sea is a very important source in the region for industry and tourism, and its water in the nature of its composition is different from natural water, because it contains many elements such as calcium and potassium and these elements are very concentrated naturally in the waters of the Dead Sea.
The historical and tourist importance of the Dead Sea area is due to the presence of some important archaeological and religious monuments such as the areas of Khirbet Qumran, Masada and the Cave of the Prophet Lot.
The natural saline formations and the climate have all attracted visitors and tourists to the Dead Sea especially with regards to therapeutic tourism
The Dead Sea has been nominated to be one of the seven natural wonders of The World Lakes.