Eczema is a general term for any non-contagious skin inflammation that appears in the form of dryness, redness, swelling, and irritation with accompanying itching, it may appear on the face, the soles of the elbow, behind the knee, on hands and feet, and so on. The most common type of eczema is atopic dermatitis, a chronic disease that affects all ages, but it is more often seen in infants, people who suffer from eczema are more likely to get allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever.
Statistics show that 10% to 20% of infants and about 3% of adults have eczema in the united states. Most of these infants will heal from eczema before the age of ten, while some continue to suffer from eczema symptoms intermittently for the rest of their life, but it could be controlled with appropriate treatment.
Causes of eczema:
The main cause of this disease is unknown, but there are several reasons that contribute to its formation like heredity, where the child is more likely to have it if one of the parents already have it, and it is caused by an abnormal manner of the immune system, patient with eczema reacts excessively if exposed to the external conditions causing itching and scratches on the skin.
Conditions leading to irritating eczema :
- Some irritating chemicals, such as soap, detergents, and sterilizers, may vary from one person to another.
- Various environmental factors such as climate change, high temperature, low humidity, and sweating.
- Some immunostimulants such as pollen, animal saliva, house mites, and some types of fabrics.
- Some types of germs such as fungus, bacteria, and viruses.
- Some allergies causing foods such as dairy products, eggs, and nuts.
- Stress “for no obvious or related reason”, but many people with eczema are getting worse after being pressured and stressed.
- Hormonal changes in the body help to increase the severity of eczema
As mentioned earlier, eczema is a general term for several dermatological diseases that share certain symptoms, the most important of which is atopic dermatitis.
The following are some of these types
- Hand eczema: also common and is confined only to the hands and between the fingers.
- Contact dermatitis: it is a skin reaction that can occur when the skin contacts some substances, that can cause inflammations.
- Seborrheic dermatitis: a severe skin reaction due to exposure to certain types of skin fungi.
- Dyshidrosis: the appearance of some pimples on the skin in the hands and feet.
- Nummular eczema: a common type of eczema that can occur at any age, is more difficult to treat than its counterparts, and appears in the shape of discs or coins.
- Neurodermatitis: it is also known as mild “lichen simplex chronicus”, an itchy skin condition similar to atopic dermatitis, and appears in the form of large patches on the skin.
- Stasis dermatitis: is sometimes called intravenous dermatitis because it arises when there is a problem in the veins, so it does not allow the blood to return and leaks under the skin, mostly occur at the bottom of the legs.
- Patches on the skin-irritating itchiness, dryness, skin is thicker than normal. They generally appear on the hands, neck, face, and legs. In children, they may also appear on the inside of the joints of the knees and the elbows.
- Itchiness can lead to wounds and ulcers covered with crust.